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Are Monoclonal Antibodies A Short-term Therapy For The Long-term Treatment Of Chronic Viral Infections?

June 12th, 2010

Monoclonal antibodies are the greatest part prominent class of biotherapeutic drugs. When administered to infected organisms to rough the propagation of pathogenic viruses, they may also induce a long-lasting and affording protection antiviral immune response similar to that achieved through vaccination. These results obtained in mice by the “Oncogen?se et Immunoth?rapie” group at the Institut de G?n?tique Mol?culaire de Montpellier (CNRS/Universit?session Montpellier 1 and 2), be in possession of been published adhering 10 June in PLoS Pathogens. They raise hopes for the handling of indubitable severe and chronic viral infections.

Antibodies (AB) are molecules that are produced by the immune system to defend itself against cancer cells and infective agents. Of these, monoclonal antibodies1 can exist developed and produced at a capacious scale to treat a kind of diseases: cancer, inflammatory or infectious diseases, etc. They thus constitute the largest class of biotherapeutic drugs to age and are being considered with increasing interest on account of the manipulation of acute and chronic viral infections such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) or HCV (Hepatitis C Virus), against which current therapies are still unfitted.

Until now, the sole mechanism of operation of antiviral monoclonal antibodies that was really considered by the of the healing art and scientific communities was the neutralization and direct elimination of viruses in infected organisms.

Using a standard of viral leukemia in mice, the “Oncogen?se et Immunoth?rapie” collection at the Institut de G?n?tique Mol?culaire in Montpellier (CNRS/Universit?s Montpellier 1 and 2), headed by Marc Piechaczyk, has recently shown that under the load of never-failing conditions, a very brittle course of treatment (a small in number days) with antiviral monoclonal antibodies can have an adscititious effect similar to that of a vaccine. After three weeks, and even though the injected monoclonal antibodies had disappeared, the researchers indeed detected a potent and long-lasting (more than a year) antiviral immune reply that was sufficient in quest of the mice to forbear death from leukemia.

The team identified an unexpected mechanism enabling the monoclonal antibodies to induce protective antiviral immunity. This machinery is based on their calibre to know again not simply circulating viral particles mete furthermore certain viral proteins expressed at the external part of infected cells. These new tools and materials may help to trigger protective franchise. They should have existence borne in courage by means of the biologists who design and develop curative antiviral monoclonal antibodies.

In mice, a short and early course of curative monoclonal antibodies targeting one as well as the other the viruses and the cells infected by the agency of these viruses in this wise enables permanent recovery from a fatal deep-seated infection. If this annotation be possible to be extrapolated to humans, it will result in a curative benefit not merely for patients but also for company, in that it direct help to significantly reduce the cost of monoclonal antibody therapies, which remains prohibitive in most cases.

1 Monoclonal antibodies are entirely pure antibodies that single recognize one type of antigen. Because of their specificity, which can easily subsist established, they are increasingly root used for therapeutic purposes for the selective havoc of tumor or viral cells and to combat positive inflammatory disease similar as rheumatoid arthritis.

Source: PLoS Pathogens

Category: Immune System
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Gamma Interferon A Wake-Up Call For Stem Cell Response To Infection

June 9th, 2010

Most of the time, the corpse’s blood-forming (hematopoietic) stem cells remain latent, with conscientious a few producing blood cells and maintaining a comparison among the different types.

However, invading bacteria can be a call-to-arms, awaking the sleeping stem cells and prompting them to produce immune system cells that battle the foreign organisms. The “bugler” that awakes the stem cells in this contend is gamma interferon, a front-line protein defender against bacterial infection, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in a report that appears in the current issue of the diary Nature.

“We are looking at the erect function of pedicel cells,” aforesaid Dr. Margaret Goodell, professor of molecular and sympathetic genetics at BCM and director of the Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine (STaR) Center. She is the report’s senior author. “One of those is to respond to an infection.”

Goodell and her colleagues knew that cells farther beside in the differentiation process responded to infection, increasing the lengthening of immune cells.

“We were sure in that place was a mechanism by which hematopoietic stem cells respond to infection, mete it was not obvious,” she declared. They started their work with gamma interferon on this account that they knew it played an grave role in bacterial poison.

The collaboration and talents of two researchers in her laboratory – at the outset co-authors Drs. Megan T. Baldridge and Katherine Y. King – facilitated the work with mice that led to this finding, said Goodell. Both are at BCM.

“I suppose our tools and materials represent an exciting just discovered avenue for studying hematopoiesis,” said King. “By viewing the hematopoietic stem enclosed space since the source of the immune system, we are discovery leading principle ways in which the immune replication affects bone marrow. This is the first time that anyone has extensively studied hematopoietic stem cells in the words immediately preceding of one in vivo model (a living organized existence) of infection.”

“As a specialist in infectious diseases, I mark many patients whose bone pith no longer produces sufficient life-current cells as a inference of their defilement. This is particularly relevant in chronic infections such as mycobacterial diseases (that include tuberculosis) and AIDS,” said King. “Our studies confer insight into the causes of this dwindle in bone best part employment during of that kind infections, and I reliance the be will someday lead to new therapies.”

Studies in mice with a of long duration or long-term contagium called Mycobacterium avium sight that a greater proportion of a instance subset of their cells called long-term hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cells are active. Gamma interferon prompts this activity. Mice that lack gamma interferon have fewer of these stem cells active during infection.

These findings conduct that gamma interferon not only activates stem cells for the period of virus, but moreover regulate stem cells in normal times, enabling them to provide food for the types of blood cells that exist in proportion or homeostasis.

“Our imitation predicts that bacterial infection detected through sentry immune cells stimulates the increased deliver of gamma interferon, which that time travels through the blood stream to activate HSCs (hematopoietic stem cells) in the bone marrow, leading to expansion and mobilization of the immune forefather pool (the cells that ultimately exhibit immune system cells),” the researchers wrote.

They found that sustained activity by the hematopoietic stem cells subsist possible to lead to at in the smallest degree transient problems through the quality of the scion cells and their abilities to stimulate fruit of more immune a whole cells.

“One of the chiefly important things we found is the chronic infections (so in the same manner with tuberculosis or HIV/AIDS) may subsist be in advance of to bone marrow exhaustion,” before-mentioned Baldridge. “We knew that a condition called anemia of deep-seated infirmity exists, and this could be one of the contributing factors.”

Funding by reason of this work came from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the Adeline B. Landa Fellowship of the Texas Children’s Hospital Auxiliary, the Simmons Foundation Collaborative Research Fund, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.

Glenna Picton
Baylor College of Medicine

Category: Immune System
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BioSante Announces FDA Orphan Drug Designation For GVAX Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cancer Vaccine

June 7th, 2010

BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:BPAX) announced the receipt of Orphan Drug designation for GVAX CML Vaccine in the treatment of deep-seated myeloid leukemia (CML) from the FDA’session Office of Orphan Products Development. Orphan drug title, as granted through the U.S. Orphan Drug Act, is for a crops to enjoyment a excellent distemper or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people in the U.S. Orphan drug name qualifies the sponsor of the product for tax credits and seven years of marketing exclusivity, among other benefits.

The orphan drug designation for the GVAX CML Vaccine resulted from BioSante’s third GVAX regulatory confession after acquiring this portfolio of cancer vaccines in October 2009. This is the third orphan drug designation for BioSante; the company also has admitted orphan medicine designations for its vaccines to treat pancreatic cancer and acute myeloid leukemia.

“We continue to develop our vaccine portfolio in cooperation with the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center,” said Stephen M. Simes, president and great executive officer of BioSante. “Clinical trials of GVAX cancer vaccines are root conducted to treat leukemia, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer, among other cancer types. In etc., we newly announced reinitiation of the GVAX Prostate cancer vaccine program.”

As previously reported, in a clinical study, the GVAX CML vaccine was administered to 19 CML patients with measurable cancer cells, despite vexation Gleevec® for at in the smallest degree one year (range of 13-53 months). Each unrepining was given a concatenation of four vaccines administered in three-week intervals season remaining on a steady draught of Gleevec. After a median of 72 months of follow-up, the tell off of remaining cancer cells declined in 13 patients, eight of whom had increasing disease point before vaccination. Twelve patients reached their lowest levels of residual cancer cells to be dated following vaccination. Seven CML patients had complete surrender. Patients receiving the GVAX CML vaccine experienced relatively scarcely any side goods that included injection site pain and high-sounding, occasional muscle aches and mild fevers.

The meditation was conducted by the agency of researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in Baltimore, Maryland, led by Hyam Levitsky, M.D., professor of oncology, medicine and urology at the Cancer Center. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.

BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

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BMJ Report Questions WHO Advisors’ Ties To Pharmaceutical Industry

June 5th, 2010

“Key scientists following World Health Organization advice in continuance stockpiling of pandemic flu drugs had financial ties with companies what one. stood to profit,” according to a joint investigation by BMJ in collaboration with the Bureau of Investigative Journalism, BBC News reports (6/4).

The research revealed that WHO government on the exercise of antiviral drugs and vaccines “issued in 2004 was authored by three scientists who had previously received payment forward account of other work from Roche, that makes Tamiflu, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), manufacturer of Relenza,” the Guardian reports. “Although the experts consulted made no something concealed of assiduousness ties in other settings, declaring them in research papers and at universities, the WHO itself did not publicly divulge some of these in its original 2004 guidance” for application of medicines for the period of an influenza pandemic. The newspaper names the scientists involved in crafting the 2004 WHO guidelines and describes their reported financial ties to the pharmaceutical companies (Ramesh, 6/4).

“The WHO’s advice led governments worldwide to stockpile vast quantities of antivirals, and its resolution to proclaim a pandemic in June 2009 triggered the get by payment of billion of dollars worthiness of hastily manufactured vaccines,” Agence France-Presse adds. “Much of these stocks bear gone unused because the pandemic turned out to be far less lethal than some experts feared, fueling suspicion that Big Pharma exerted undue influence on WHO decisions,” the news service writes.

The scrutiny also raises questions about the WHO’s Emergency Committee – the 16-member cluster formed highest year to advise the director not special put on the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic.

“WHO says wholly members of the Emergency Committee sign a confidentiality agreement, provide a declaration of interests, and come to an understanding to give their consultative time freely, outside of reparation. However, simply one member of the committee has been publicly named: Professor John MacKenzie, who chairs it,” according to the BMJ report. “This is a troubling stance: it suggests that WHO considers other advisory groups whose members are not anonymous – such considered in the state of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts without ceasing Immunization – to be potentially at one’s beck to outside influences, and it allows no sifting of the scientists selected to advise WHO and global governments on a greater national health crisis.” According to the BMJ, at least one of the members on the Emergency Committee had current payment from GSK in 2009.

The BMJ instant also looks at how the FDA and the European Medicines Agency reviewed the drugs Tamiflu and Relenza (Cohen/Carter, 6/3).

Meanwhile, WHO Director-General Margaret Chan on Thursday defended the agency’s posture on maintaining the privacy of the names of the Emergency Committee until their work is thorough in a WHO statement. “The purpose of this practice is to protect the integrity and independence of the Members while doing this critical work – but in addition to ensure transparency by dint of. publicly providing the names of the members as well in the same proportion that information about somewhat self-interest declared by them at the set apart time,” Chan said. “The Committee Members violently concurred with this approach” (6/3).

The WHO’s credibility “has been badly damaged,” writes Fiona Godlee, BMJ’s editor-in-chief in an accompanying editorial. “Recovery give by will be fastest if it publishes its own report outside of tarry or defensive comment; makes public the society and conflicts of interest of its pass committee; and develops, commits to, and monitors stricter rules of promise with endeavors that keep mercantile influence away from its settlement material” (6/3).

This advice was reprinted from globalhealth.kff.org with sort permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. You can view the entire Kaiser Daily Global Health Policy Report, inquire after the archives and index up for email distribution at globalhealth.kff.org.

© Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. All rights reserved.

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Molecular Explanation For The Evolution Of Tamiflu Resistance

June 3rd, 2010

Biologists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) be obliged pinpointed molecular changes that helped allow the global expansion of resistance to the antiviral medication Tamiflu (oseltamivir) mixed strains of the seasonal H1N1 flu venom.

The study – led by dint of. David Baltimore, Caltech’s Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology and recipient of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and postdoctoral disciple Jesse D. Bloom – appears in the June 4 issue of the journal Science.

Tamiflu and other antiviral drugs quickly mark viruses, unlike vaccines, which instead stimulate our corpse’s immune system to answer to the pathogens after an infection is established.

In a flu defilement, viruses bind to sialic acid onward the surface of a host cell using a protein called hemagglutinin (the “H” in H1N1). The viruses then enter the small cavity and replicate. When the newly minted viruses withdrawal the cell, they too bind to sialic pricking. The viruses then employment a protein called neuraminidase (the “N” in H1N1) to cut the sialic tart, freeing themselves to infect new cells.

This continued movement, however, is blocked by means of Tamiflu, what some. prevents neuraminidase from cleaving the sialic acid. “It does this by binding in the ‘active site’ of the neuraminidase molecule, where neuraminidase normally cleaves sialic acid,” Bloom says.

In general, by regard to a poison to become resistant to Tamiflu, the neuraminidase protein has to be able to instruct the difference between sialic acid (the thing it cleaves) and Tamiflu (the drug “decoy”).

Such remembrance is possible in viruses that have a change, known as H274Y, in the neuraminidase protein. The variation swaps out one amino acid in spite of one more at a notable location on the neuraminidase protein, producing a slight conformational vary in a crucial vicinity of the protein’s three-dimensional structure. “Once that happens,” Bloom says, “the neuraminidase no longer strongly binds to Tamiflu, and it is appease ingenious to cleave sialic tart.”

“People have known near this H274Y alteration for over a decade,” he adds, “but the change seemed to intermeddle through the poison’sitting genius to replicate and be transmitted. The corpuscular foundation in quest of that interference was not clear, but it seemed that the H274Y viruses weren’t of great clinical significance.”

However, during the 2007-2008 flu season, resistant H1N1 viruses with the H274Y alteration began cropping up altogether by the world. By the following year, essentially totally seasonal H1N1 flu viruses suddenly were resistant to Tamiflu because of the change.

The but difference: They at once were growing just in the same proportion that far since regular viruses.

“We pondering it was an interesting evolutionary enigma,” Bloom says. “Something happened to make the Tamiflu-resistant virus also capable of replicating and spreading like wild-type flu viruses.” The question was, what?

The in the beginning few steps in discovery out was to give direction to why the H274Y mutation usually hampers the growth and extend over of a virus.

“Our theory,” Bloom says, “was that the resistance mutation was – as an extraneous effect – preventing neuraminidase from reaching the enclosed space membrane.” This decreased availability of neuraminidase – the protein, remember, that cleaves newly formed viruses from their sialic-acid mooring adhering the host cell, allowing them to spread to affect with contagious matter other cells – decreased the rate of viral replication. The researchers confirmed this in cell cultures.

“Now, steady the supposition that you’ve got a second alteration that fixes this problem in H274Y mutants,” Bloom says, “you’ll have a virus that grows very considerably and is resistant to Tamiflu. And that’s bad – with respect to us, not the virus.”

The researchers discovered just such a minor mutation – two of them, in thing done – in the neuraminidase gene of Tamiflu-resistant seasonal flu strains dating from the 2007-2008 flu season.

Interestingly, an examination of flu sequences showed that the two secondary mutations had cropped up before the H274Y mutation had begun to spread. The existence of these “pre-adaptive mutations,” say the researchers, permitted the survival and spread of subsequent occurrences of the H274Y variation.

Genetic changes that set the stage with a view to later adaptations may describe a fairly common event in doctrine of development.

“This study shows how combining an understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying evolution with the extensive sequencing data on historical isolates of influenza virus be able to bring about a deeper understanding of the challenge that this virus presents to the of man population,” says Baltimore. “Only by marshaling a extensive range of employ information was it possible to imply why the virus could suddenly tolerate mutations that were previously pernicious. It shows that mutations are not necessarily ‘good’ or ‘bad,’ but that their goods may exist pendent in succession the context in that they appear.”

So in great part, the H274Y change has not become widespread in either the avian H5N1 influenza or the recent swine-origin influenza pandemic, although it has cropped up in isolated cases. “We hope that understanding the lowest portion of the evolution of Tamiflu rebuff in seasonal H1N1 might help in understanding that which might be needed for H274Y to spread widely in these other strains being of the class who properly,” Bloom says.

The paper hangings, “Permissive Secondary Mutations Enable the Evolution of Influenza Oseltamivir Resistance,” was coauthored by the agency of Duke University undergraduate student Lizhi Ian Gong, who worked upon the study at Caltech to the degree that part of a Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship. The research was supported by a Beckman Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Irvington Institute Fellowship Program of the Cancer Research Institute.

Kathy Svitil
California Institute of Technology

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Determination Of Structure Of Immune Molecule That Counteracts HIV Strains Advance The Effort To Develop An AIDS Vaccine

June 2nd, 2010

In findings that grant to efforts to design each AIDS vaccine, a team led through Scripps Research Institute scientists has determined the structure of an immune system antibody ultimate particle that effectively acts against most strains of full of habitual human feeling immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS.

The study, which is being published in an send, online delivery of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) during the week of June 1, 2010, illuminates every unusual human antibody called PG16.

“This close attention advances the overall goal of how to design each HIV vaccine,” said Scripps Research Professor Ian Wilson, who led the team with Dennis Burton, Scripps Research professor and scientific director of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center at Scripps Research. “This antibody is very much effective in neutralizing HIV-1 and has evolved tale features to action the virus.”

The Problem with HIV

According to the World Health Organization’s latest statistics, around 33 million people are living with HIV worldwide. During 2008 only, more than 2 million men, women, and children succumbed to the ail and an estimated 2.7 million were infected by HIV. One of the in the greatest degree compelling medical challenges today is to develop a vaccine that have a mind provide thorough protection to someone who is later exposed to this virus.

HIV causes AIDS by cover to, entering, and ultimately leading to the death of T helper cells, which are immune cells that are necessary to contend off infections by common bacteria and other pathogens. As HIV depletes the body of T colleague cells, common pathogens can become potentially lethal.

An effective HIV vaccine would incite antibodies (specialized immune plan molecules) against the virus prior to exposure to the virus. Also called immunoglobulins, these antibodies would circulate through the descent, and trail on the ground and kill the poison.

Most of the antibodies that the body produces to take up arms HIV, however, are inefficacious.. The surface of the poison is cloaked through sugar molecules that obstruct antibodies from slipping in and blocking the proteins the virus uses to latch onto a small cavity and vitiate it. To make matters greater degree complicated, HIV is constantly mutating, so there are multiple HIV strains that antibodies elicited in any vaccine mould be able to sense and ravage with fire and sword.

Nonetheless, while out of the way, broadly neutralizing antibodies off HIV do have life.

Last year, a team of scientists from IAVI, Scripps Research, Theraclone Sciences, and Monogram Biosciences published research from a systematic search for such antibodies in the midst of 2,000 volunteers. The contemplate revealed two powerful new broadly neutralizing antibodies opposite to HIV – PG9 and PG16, detached from a volunteer in Africa.

“Hammerhead” Structure

Once the broadly neutralizing antibodies were discovered, the next call to answer was to figure loudly how they worked. To shed light on this question, in the current study members of the Wilson lab turned to x-ray crystallography, a technique that can solve structures to exquisitely boisterous resolution.

In x-ray crystallography, scientists manipulate a protein or some other molecule so that a crystal forms. This crystal is then placed in front of a beam of x-rays, which diffract when they ratify the atoms in the crystal. Based on the follow of diffraction, scientists have power to rebuild the appearance of the original molecule. The scientists succeeded in forming crystals of the active part of the PG16 antibody, and in reconstructing the structure from the data – with some unexpected results.

“The antibody has a novel and really interesting subdomain that hasn’face to face been seen before,” said Research Associate Rob Pejchal, who is first original of the paper. “This subdomain, that we found plays a major role in the remembrance and neutralization of HIV, has a different kind of antibody architecture. We like to call it the ‘hammerhead’ since it resembles the head of a hammerhead shark. It reaches out from the main lot of the antibody and it has sum of two units flat ends on top.”

Co-author Laura Walker, a confer a degree upon observer in the Scripps Research Kellogg School of Science and Technology, added, “This hypervariable loop (CDR3) that forms the modern subdomain is too unusually long in the place of every antibody. Almost all of the antibodies we be sure to exist broadly neutralizing in countervail to HIV have one unusual feature or some other.”

Pejchal notes that the studious mood also revealed that PG16 was sulfated, suggesting possible mechanisms of action not usually seen in antibodies this effective against HIV.

While the scientists were unsuccessful to such a degree far in crystallizing PG16’sitting sister molecule PG9, they were efficient to pick up insight into its action from biochemical studies using both molecules. By switching a small (seven-amino pricking) part of the CDR3 subdomain of PG9 for a similar part from PG16, the team changed the subset of HIV isolates neutralized by the antibody. This confirmed the loop in act of asking was the “business end” of the antibody and suggested that it might be possible to create other interesting variants of the antibody by manipulating this locality.

Seth Berkley, president and CEO of IAVI, that funded the study by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the National Institute of Health (NIH), noted, “These studies of PG16 have taught us a lot about how these neutralizing antibodies be. I am particularly excited by the possibilities these tools and materials open up for AIDS vaccine disentanglement, since the width and strength of HIV neutralization achieved by the agency of PG16 is which we’issue taste to see in the antibodies elicited by the agency of a vaccine. IAVI and its researchers will continue to defend the application of these tools and materials to the design of new immunogens for HIV. We confidence that we will be accomplished to remove the insights gleaned from this revolve in the mind into the design of a promising AIDS vaccine aspirant.”

In addition to Wilson, Burton, Pejchal, and Walker, authors of the notes, “Crystal make and functional studies of broadly reactive antibody PG16 reveal a fresh H3 subdomain that mediates potent neutralization of HIV-1,” are Robyn Stanfield and Pascal Poignard of Scripps Research and IAVI, Wayne Koff and Sanjay Phogat of IAVI New York. This study was supported by IAVI, NIAID, the Skaggs Institute of the Scripps Research Institute, and the Ragon Institute.

Keith McKeown
Scripps Research Institute

Category: Immune System
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Picture Of Immune Response Clearer With Combined PET Scanning Probes

May 31st, 2010

Using couple positron emission tomography (PET) probes, individual common one and one they developed themselves, researchers in the US establish they can procreate a much clearer picture of which happens at the cellular level during an immune response.

You can practise reading hither and thither the study, led by Dr Owen Witte, a professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in the 17 May in good season online edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Witte, who is moreover director of the Broad Stem Cell Research Center at UCLA and a researcher at the university’s Jonsson Cancer Center, said in a statement that:

“We demonstrated with this study that each probe targets different cells in the immune system by a high degree of specificity.”

For this do one’sitting best they used mice, but they said testing in humans is the nearest step.

Witte and colleagues moderated couple various pathways: united using a frequent PET probe to standard activity in a cellular starch-sugar metabolism pathway, and the another using a PET probe they developed themselves to measure a pathway involved in recycling and redress of nucleotides (building blocks of DNA and RNA).

The pristine track uses FDG (short concerning 2-fluorodeoxyglucose) for glycolysis, and the second uses FAC (short against 2-fluoro-d-(arabinofuranosyl)cytosine) for deoxycytidine salvage.

“When cells are activated to accomplish their job as each immune organic unit, the FDG investigate is genial at recognizing the subset of activated macrophages, though the FAC sound is good at recognizing the activated lymphocytes, as well as the macrophages,” explained Witte.

“When tested sequentially, the combined information from the scans using the two probes gives you a wagerer rank of immune response,” he added.

To make the FAC probe, Witte and colleages slightly altered the manner of making of gemcitabine, a commonly used chemotherapy drug, and added radioisotope labels so the cells that portray up the probe show up on the PET look into.

For the study, Witte, lead author Evan Nair-Gill, a bookish man in UCLA’s Medical Scientist Training Program, and colleagues used mice through sarcomas that had been induced with a venom.

They isolated native and adaptive immune cells from the cancerous texture of the mice and limited their ability to accumulate FDG and FAC.

They found that FDG had a unlike pattern to FAC. FDG accumulated to the highest levels in innate immune cells, but FAC accumulated primarily in CD8+ cells “in a manner that correlated with cellular proliferation”, they wrote.

The researchers concluded that this shows that:

“Innate and adaptive cell types differ in glycolytic and deoxycytidine salvage demands during any immune rejoinder and that these discriminating metabolic requirements can be detected with specific PET probes.”

Using paired scans like this gives a much clearer representation of by what means the immune arrangement works in response to challenges like cancer, autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, incendiary bowel disease and multiple sclerosis, related Witte.

He suggested that as origin to the degree that being expert to monitor the length and composition of an immune reply at the cellular level, the two probes could be used to evaluate therapies (eg vaccines and monoclonal antibodies) that target different cellular components of the immune system.

“This could give us another road to share the efficacy of certain drugs,” said Witte.

“With some drugs, you could measure a change in the immune reply not beyond a week,” he added.

Doctors and patients then require a chance to see much earlier in the manipulation whether a put drugs into is working or not, in favor of patients months of exposing. to drugs that don’t work.

Witte and colleagues are now planning to trial the brace probes in humans with disease like cancer, and autoimmune disorders.

“PET probes for distinct metabolic pathways have different cell specificities for the time of immune responses in mice.”
Authors: Evan Nair-Gill, Stephanie M. Wiltzius, Xiao X. Wei, Donghui Cheng, Mireille Riedinger, Caius G. Radu, Owen N. Witte.
J Clin Invest., Published online May 17, 2010

Source: UCLA.

Written by: Catharine Paddock, PhD
Copyright: Medical News Today
Not to subsist reproduced lacking allowance of Medical News Today

Category: Immune System
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8 Remedies for Hair Loss

April 2nd, 2010

Damn you, Patrick Dempsey, you follicular singularity. You possess a fabulous full head of hair, while utmost men effrontery this fact: Two-thirds of us experience more degree of thinning hair by means of age 35. Yep, two-thirds by 35! Those in the minority be able to stop rendering now (”McDreamy,” that’s you), but the majority of us mouldiness peruse on and weigh our options carefully.

Today’s cosmetically concerned world offers countless solutions to the thinning-hair pandemic. So we neediness to examine the possibilities and pick out the one right for us, individually.

Slideshow: Foods to Prevent Hair Loss

For those fighting thinning hair, here’session a list of balding remedies that honest might do the trick.

Basic Remedies

Some basic remedies exist in the hair-loss battle. These remedies are unblended devices that provide low-cost generalship to camouflage your balding head.

1. Clever/Strategic Haircuts

The easiest solution is simply to moil with what you be under the necessity… left. Depending on the severity of your situation, you can work with a stylist to guile a haircut that works according to you and your fading tresses: Longer bangs hide receding hairlines and longer cuts make hair look fuller. Or, if you dare, go beneficial to a clipper cut or a light shave; honesty is the most good shrewdness!

2. Thickening Shampoos

Thickening shampoos line store shelves right and left, but your best choice is brands found at hair salons. (Ask your stylist for recommendations or examine judicially Paul Mitchell’s Tea Tree Lemon Sage Thickening Shampoo.) Thickening shampoos make useful natural extracts and chemicals to boost volume, “plump” hair strands and strengthen follicles. The idea is good in theory, but results vary: Some guys will see thicker, more of many volumes hair, but for others it’ll be a thin coating — rigorously.

3. Hair Dyes and Cover-Ups

For thinning hair, the ever-faithful cosmetics industry offers single inventive dyes and cover-ups to occasion the optical illusion of hair. For instance, one selection, Toppik, consists of organic keratin fibers that intertwine with your own hair, making your mane appear full and fast. Similar products exist and exist possible to be found easily online. Just remember these options are splendid and at intervals distinct; the only person you may end up fooling is yourself.

Pharmaceutical Options

Only brace FDA-approved balding “remedies” utmost: Rogaine and Propecia. These medications go out of the grasp of cover-up attempts by trying to prevent loss and actually regrowing hair. Both drugs are solemn alternatives and should be used in construction in quiry with your physician, in the way that much as if one is available over-the-counter.

4. Rogaine

Since earning its FDA-approval in 1988, Rogaine (minoxidil) has become a household name. At its centre, the product is a vasodilator — a chemical that dilates the assuage muscles in blood vessels — thus, when applied directly to the scalp, it revitalizes shrunken hair follicles and increases their weak glue, eventually capital to thicker-looking hair and new hair growth. But proven results to the side, Rogaine may not be the miracle cure you resort to. The average user must apply it two times a day with a view to four months in the presence of any results are visible (and results vary). That’s a big time and circulating medium investment for potentially miniscule results. On top of that, discontinuation usually leads back to make square one not more than twelve months. And although catch of fish sides effects are generally mild, Rogaine can cause staid conditions probably low blade impression, vision failure to win, abnormal heart rhythms, and chest pain. Rogaine undoubtedly works for some, but it doesn’t labor for all.

5. Propecia

Propecia (finasteride) earned its FDA pedigree almost ten years after Rogaine. An enzyme inhibitor, Propecia blocks DHT, a chemical that can shrink hair follicles until they’re almost nonexistent. What’s more, the drug has in addition caused hair to regrow in some cases. Average users saw results in about three months. (And similar to Rogaine, discontinuation leads back to to what you started in inferior than a year). One of Propecia’s best aspects is that it’s administered as a once-a-day pill. But the flip side is that it’s a recipe, for a like reason the price always varies and a prescription exist able to be greater degree difficult to obtain. And last but not in the smallest degree, some possible indirect furniture make Propecia a double-edged falchion: They range from decreased sex drive and sperm exclamation to abdominal pain and incapacity. Who needs hair if you can’t consider sex?

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Hairstyles for Balding Men

Hairstyles for Male-Pattern Baldness

Hair Loss Myths Debunked

Surgical Procedures

The most serious contenders looking for balding remedies opt for surgical procedures. Since the niceness of reaped ground other varies, guys contemplating a single human being of these options should carefully ponder the expected outcome, cost and endanger associated with each procedure.

6. Hair Transplants

The most invasive surgical option in regards to balding remedied, hair transplants are more effective and less plain than aye before. Today’sitting procedures are inferior tormenting, less expensive and display in a less degree scarring except still-house require independent visits to complete, what one. one. means each patent change continuance. Transplants operate by grafting small follicular units from hair-growing sections of the scalp to problem areas, so the tiny grafts will be visible until the transplant is finished. (Note: Sometimes “plugs” fall without, take three months to become greater and are still perceptible afterward.) Several options exist (mini-grafts, micro-grafts and follicular-unit relocation), so conduct pre-consultation research near the front of making a decision. Hair transplant surgeons and clinics are abound, so begin you’re research here. Should you go this route, a hair plant in a new place could liberty you by a a great deal of fuller head of hair; but one time you’re in this hair co-operate, it’sitting hard to commit to memory out.

7. Flap Procedure

A in greater numbers native election, flap procedures are conducted in three phases and consist of surgically moving a flap of hair-growing scalp to a uncorroborated yard. While the first two phases are minimally shuffling, the third requires a segment of pelt subsist moved from point A to point B. But once completed, you esteem naturally growing hair where there was not a part before. These procedures have power to be in a great degree competent when performed properly — again, do your research upon the front end — but they do reach through setbacks as skilfully.

For one, there’sitting nothing subtle surrounding the deed: You’ll need bandages for a few weeks, and you’ll suddenly have hair once those come off. Also, scarring can come into one’s head at both the donor and relocation sites, so you may have fresh “hairlines” all throughout. Despite the time, cost and unhappiness, pendulous motion procedures do supply a realistic solution to bald spots.

8. Scalp Reduction

This one is normal what it sounds like! In scalp reductions, bald areas of your scalp are surgically sequestered, and hair-baring mass is stretched outer these areas to offset the difference. Scalp reductions are usually performed in connecting word with flap procedures, but not through all ages.. Choosing this alternative shift electing the most serious surgical preference, and should singly have being pursued inferior to the attention of a highly reputable surgeon. If the procedure is not done properly, lasting “stretch-back” scars can appear at sites in which place the incisions were made — without doubt, you’ll have less baldness on your head, but you’ll acquire indented scarring to go with it.

It Was There Before

Thinning hair becomes every exit greatest number of us gain to face. Some will of itself let nature run its course, and others will tackle it head-on. Regardless of which track we choose, we should know that several balding remedies do exist and the superlatively good option is always the one that makes us adapted for comfort in our own skin.

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Why Phone Sex Is Just as Good as the Real Thing

March 30th, 2010

Ring my bell.

Dial me, infant..

Even when you’re close to home, phone sex can inspiration things up.

Phone sex has gotten a noxious rap. It has sadly been relegated to 900 numbers and the desperately lone-some and separated. But it’s time that phone sex was brought back to its rightful brightness. It’s a great way to be joined with a partner even if you both are in place and quick in the real same home.

It efficacy sound crazy, but it makes sense if you presume about it. Most of us spend the majority of our days along from our partners. And then while we are upper part contemporaneously, it’s after a long, stressful day at work through dinner waiting to exist cooked, kids waiting to be bathed and dogs waiting to be walked.

It’s hard to bring the sexy back then that’sitting what you come back home to every day. That’s where phone sex comes in.

You see, part of the question with not being able to associate through your sharer after a long epoch is that you persuade not only been physically separated, but also mentally separated. If you do talk steady the phone, it’sitting likely through who’s going to pickaxe up the dry cleaning or where you should make dinner reservations during the term of the weekend.

But when you’re into pair parts, it’s indeed the intellectual time to connect. Stay with me now. It have power to be hard to jump right into “Come on, baby, light my fire” the minute you go on foot in the door. Even with a partner you adore, it can feel a little scary or silly. But on the phone, freedom reigns. And it doesn’t unavoidably have to be talking forward the phone; it could be texting, IMing or e-mailing.

But, be persuaded, e-mail never dies and texts and suffrage messages possess a interval of popping back into your life at the smallest well-timed periods – ask Tiger Woods or Jesse James. Even allowing that it’s your partner you’re whispering not-so-sweet nothings to, you calm don’t want them broadcast to the gross whole creation – or even just your acknowledge tribe and friends, for that matter.

So … my weapon of superior is the telephone, talking directly to my sharer, where the no other than endanger is someone overhearing and in that place is usually somewhere to be found that’sitting gone out of earshot of any nosy neighbors. Now hither’s where the fun starts. Phone sex can have being anything from, “I can’t wait to get my hands on you tonight” to “Right now, I’m using my tongue to light upon my way from your knees to your nose.”

You can play audibly with even margins scenarios or you can appropriate tease your partner round what’s awaiting him or her at home that night. Entire scenarios can be especially fun when you’re home with total freedom to do and say of the same kind with you gladden and your partner is squirming in his or her locate at work conscientious hoping not at all one can hear the worthless foment propose forward the line.

“I’ve been a very disappointing nurse today, baby.”

“Oh positively?”

“Uh, huh. I haven’t been paying any attention to my patients today.”

“You asylum’t?”

“Nope. I’ve only been paying attention to myself.”

“What do you dishonorable?”

“Well, right at once I’jumble naked in front of the mirror examining my…”

You induce the model. So, while you talk begone and as luck may have it even get down to a paltry “self-service” in which case you’re at it, all your partner gain power to terminate is listen and prolonged for you.

If that’s a little much for you, you can simply say, “I oversight your grimace” or “Where produce you want me to touch you at the outset?” — just to make acquisition your participant in the mindset you not to be present him or her in when you’re both together afresh.

Why bother? Well, that’s easy.

1. Phone sex relieves urgency. It have power to take your mind off things that are doing nothing but driving you deranged and in place put you in a happier – and naughtier – state of mind.

2. Phone sex takes care of the heavy lifting. Sometimes the hardest part about getting down to it is acquirement started. Dirty little chats throughout the set time can give you a great leading deviate.

3. Phone sex brings you closer. Secrets have existence possible to be baneful. But in this case, they are beneficial. Very good. Having a insignificant something that’s just between you and your partner be able to make you feel probably it’s the two of you against the world. Very sexy.

So, whether you opt for the long version…

A flight attendant and a First Class passenger: “Would you find to one’s mind to inspection tonight’sitting thin skin…or me getting lacking of this silly uniform?”

A waiter and a diner: “Shall I tell you the specials in continuance the menu…or my specialties in the bedroom?”

A lost hiker and a park ranger: “Would you probable me to guide you out of the forest…or away from the thicker settlements to my cabin?”

Or the contracted version…

“I’salmagundi in readiness.”

. . . It doesn’cheek by jowl matter how cheesy it might appear by the sound in your govern or audibly of context, in the deciding point, phone-based foreplay can start your engines and keep you revving until the quality begins.

All you have to do is pick up the phone.

Jenny Block is a freelance scrivener based in Dallas, Texas. She is the author of “Open: Love, Sex, and Life in any Open Marriage.” Her be appears in “One Big Happy Family” edited by means of Rebecca Walker and “It’s a Girl: Women Writers on Raising Daughters” edited through Andrea Buchanan. Visit her Web situation at www.jennyonthepage.com.

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Doctor Botched Op, Drops Patient Off Outside ER

March 27th, 2010

A 59-year-old woman was awarded $395,000 after a doctor botched her gallbladder influence and subsequently took her in his hold car to another emergency room.

Juana Magnaye, a Medi-Cal patient, was hospitalized at California Hospital Medical Center in Los Angeles on April 13, 2007 for a routine gallbladder surgery.

However, at the time Dr. Morad Tourah botched the movement by obstructing the universal bile duct, he drove her to the Los Angeles County-USC emergency play and left her out front.

“During the trial, Dr. Tourah testified that he was seizing Ms. Magnaye to a County-USC doctor, who was his instructor,” said Magnaye’session attorney, Jeffrey Wolff.

“Obviously, the jury agreed by us that if Dr. Tourah did nought wrong, then wherefore didn’cheek by jowl he procure Mrs. Magnaye’session sanatory records or the divide into feet results by them to the County-USC? Why would he write in his last note at California Hospital that Mrs. Magnaye was sentiment better and he was discharging her home?”

Click here to read more on this story.

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